HR Glossary: Over 200 Terms and Phrases To Know

In the ever-evolving world of Human Resources (HR), it’s easy to get lost in the maze of terminology and jargon. This HR Jargon Buster is designed to provide clear, concise definitions of common HR terms used within the UK. Whether you’re an HR professional, a manager, or an employee looking to better understand HR communications, this guide is a handy reference. From ‘Annual Leave’ to ‘Gender Pay Gap’, each term is explained in simple language to enhance your understanding of HR practices and policies.

A-Z Glossary of HR Terms

360-Degree Feedback: A system or process in which employees receive confidential, anonymous feedback from the people who work around them, including peers, managers, and direct reports.

Absence Management: The approach and methods an organisation uses to reduce the occurrence and impact of employee absenteeism.

Accommodation Adjustment: Changes made to a workplace or the way work is performed to enable an employee with a disability to work effectively.

Achievement Oriented: A personal attribute or approach focused on setting and meeting high standards and achieving significant goals.

Action Plan: A detailed plan outlining actions needed to reach one or more goals, or to complete a project.

Agile Working: A way of working in which an organisation empowers its people to work where, when, and how they choose to maximise productivity and deliver the best results.

Annual Leave: The amount of time an employee is allowed to be away from work while still receiving pay. In the UK, this is typically outlined in the employment contract.

Applicant Tracking System (ATS): A software application designed to help manage recruitment and hiring processes, including tracking job applicants.

Appraisal: A review process where an employee’s performance is evaluated, often leading to feedback, development plans, or discussions about career progression.

Aptitude Test: A standardised test designed to measure an individual’s ability in a particular skill or field of knowledge.

Arbitration: A method of resolving disputes outside the courts, where the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons and agree to be bound by the arbitration decision.

Assessment: The evaluation of the performance, skills, or abilities of an employee or a job applicant.

Assessment Centre: A method used in the recruitment process involving a collection of exercises, tests, and interviews to assess the suitability of candidates for a specific role.

Attrition: The reduction in staff numbers due to retirement, resignation, or termination, not replaced by new hires.

Background Check: The process of looking up and compiling criminal records, commercial records, and financial records of an individual or an organisation.

Balanced Scorecard: A strategic planning and management system used to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organisation, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organisational performance.

BAME (Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic): A term used in the UK to describe people of non-white descent, often in the context of discussing diversity and inclusion in the workplace.

Bandwidth: Informally used to describe the capacity of an individual or team to take on additional tasks or roles.

Benchmarking: The process of comparing one’s business processes and performance metrics to industry bests or best practices.

Bench Strength: Refers to the capabilities and readiness of potential employees to fill critical roles or leadership positions within the organisation.

Benefits: Various forms of non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries, like pensions, health insurance, and holidays.

Benefits in Kind: Non-cash benefits provided to employees, such as company cars, private medical insurance, and other non-monetary perks.

Best Practice: Techniques or methodologies that, through experience and research, have reliably led to a desired or optimum result.

Biodata: Information about an individual’s life, work, and career accomplishments; used in recruitment and selection processes.

Blended Workforce: A workforce that is made up of employees who are permanent and those who are not, such as contractors, freelancers, or part-time employees.

Blue-Collar: Relating to manual work or workers, particularly in industry, as opposed to white-collar office workers.

Bonus: A financial reward beyond one’s regular salary, often given for achieving certain performance targets or for exceptional work.

Bonus Scheme: A plan or system used by businesses to incentivise and reward employees beyond their regular pay.

Bradford Factor: A human resources tool used to measure absenteeism.

Break Clause: A clause in a contract that allows a person or party to end the contract early.

Burnout: A state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion caused by prolonged stress and overwork, often resulting in decreased performance and motivation.

Business Continuity Planning: The process of creating systems of prevention and recovery to deal with potential threats to a company.

Business Ethics: The study of proper business policies and practices regarding potentially controversial subjects such as corporate governance, insider trading, bribery, discrimination, corporate social responsibility, and fiduciary responsibilities.

Buy-In: Agreement or acceptance, often by employees, of a new idea or strategy proposed by management.

Candidate: An individual applying for a job or considered for a specific position.

Capability Development: Enhancing the skills and abilities of employees to perform their job roles effectively and to support future business needs.

Capability Procedure: A process used by employers to manage employees who are not meeting certain performance standards at work.

Career Break: A period when an employee takes an extended leave from their career, often for personal reasons such as travel, study, or childcare.

Career Development: The lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure, and transitions in order to move toward a personally determined and evolving preferred future.

Career Ladder: The progression of steps, or stages, in an individual’s career path within an organisation.

Career Pathing: The process used by an employee to chart a course within an organisation for their career path and career development.

Casual Worker: Someone who is not contracted to regular hours but works on an ‘as needed’ basis, often without the same employment rights as full-time staff.

Change Agent: An individual or group that helps an organisation transform itself by focusing on such matters as organisational effectiveness, improvement, and development.

Change Management: The process, tools, and techniques used to manage the people side of change to achieve a required business outcome.

CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development): A professional association for human resource management professionals. Based in the UK, the CIPD is the world’s largest Chartered HR and development professional body and is widely recognised in various countries.

CIPD Qualification: A range of professional qualifications offered by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) tailored for those in human resource management and learning and development roles.

Coaching: A development process where an individual is supported while achieving a specific personal or professional competence or goal.

Coaching Culture: A work environment where coaching is a key aspect of how the leaders, managers, and staff engage and develop all employees and themselves.

Cognitive Ability Test: A test designed to measure a person’s mental capacity or ability to think, reason, and solve problems.

Collective Agreement: A written contract negotiated through collective bargaining for employees by one or more trade unions with the management of a company (or with an employers’ association), concerning the terms and conditions of employment.

Collective Bargaining: The process in which working people, through their unions, negotiate contracts with their employers to determine their terms of employment.

Commission: A form of payment to an employee based on the amount of sales that the employee generates.

Compensatory Rest: Rest periods which are taken at a later time when an employee has had to skip or reduce their regular breaks or rest periods.

Competency: A skill or attribute that is required to carry out a job effectively.

Compromise Agreement: An agreement, typically arising in the context of an employment dispute, in which the employer and employee reach a mutually agreeable resolution.

Conflict Resolution: The process of resolving a dispute or a conflict by meeting at least some of each side’s needs and addressing their interests.

Constructive Dismissal: A situation where an employee resigns as a result of the employer creating a hostile work environment.

Contingent Workforce: A labour pool whose members are hired by an organisation on an on-demand basis.

Contract of Employment: A legal agreement between an employer and an employee which sets out their employment rights, responsibilities, and duties.

Core Hours: The period during the day when employees are expected to be at work, as part of flexible working arrangements.

Corporate Culture: The beliefs, behaviours, values, and symbols that a company accepts, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation of employees to another.

Corporate Governance: The system of rules, practices, and processes by which a firm is directed and controlled.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A self-regulating business model that helps a company be socially accountable to itself, its stakeholders, and the public.

Cost of Living Adjustment: An increase in income to help employees keep up with inflation.

Counter Offer: An offer made in response to a previous offer by the other party during negotiations.

Creativity and Innovation: The process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service that creates value or for which customers will pay.

Critical Success Factors: The crucial steps companies must take to achieve their goals.

Cross-Functional Team: A group of people with different functional expertise working toward a common goal.

C-Suite: A term used to collectively refer to a corporation’s most important senior executives whose titles start with the letter C, for chief, as in CEO, CFO, COO, etc.

Culture Fit: The likelihood that a candidate will reflect and/or be able to adapt to the core beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours that make up an organisation.

CV (Curriculum Vitae): A detailed written overview of an individual’s experience and other qualifications for a job opportunity, more commonly referred to as a CV in the UK.

Data Protection Act: The law designed to protect personal data stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system.

Demotion: The act of reducing an employee’s rank or position, often accompanied by a decrease in salary and responsibilities.

Delegation: The assignment of responsibility or authority to another person to carry out specific activities, while the person delegating retains ultimate responsibility for the outcome.

Deliverables: Tangible or intangible goods or services produced as a result of a project that is intended to be delivered to a customer.

Development Plan: A detailed plan outlining an individual’s strategy for professional growth, identifying skills to be acquired, knowledge to be gained, and opportunities to be pursued.

Direct Compensation: Financial benefits given to employees in the form of salaries, wages, bonuses, and commissions.

Direct Report: An employee who is managed directly by another employee, typically by a manager or supervisor.

Disability: In the context of HR, it refers to a physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses, or activities, and which may require special accommodations in the workplace.

Disability Discrimination Act: Legislation that promotes civil rights for disabled people and protects disabled people from discrimination.

Disciplinary Procedure: A formal process for dealing with an employee who is considered to have violated company policies or rules.

Dismissal: The act of terminating an employee’s contract, often due to misconduct or redundancy.

Distance Learning: A way of studying where tuition is carried out over the Internet or by post, without the need to attend a school or college.

Diversity: Refers to the inclusion of individuals from a wide range of backgrounds and identities in the workplace, including race, gender, age, and other characteristics.

Diversity Management: The practice of addressing and supporting multiple lifestyles and personal characteristics within a defined group.

Downsize: Reducing the number of employees within an organisation, often due to economic reasons or organisational restructuring.

Dress Code: A set of rules specifying the required manner of dress at the workplace.

Due Diligence: The comprehensive appraisal of a business undertaken by a prospective buyer, especially to establish its assets and liabilities and evaluate its commercial potential.

Duvet Day: A Duvet Day is a spontaneous, unscheduled day off given to employees for rest and mental well-being, separate from standard sick or annual leave, emphasizing the importance of mental health in the workplace.

E-Learning: Learning conducted via electronic media, typically on the Internet.

EAP (Employee Assistance Programme): A work-based intervention program designed to assist employees in resolving personal problems that may be adversely affecting the employee’s performance.

Early Retirement: The option for an employee to retire before the traditional retirement age, often with reduced pension benefits.

Employee Advocacy: The promotion of a company or organisation by its staff members.

Employee Benefits: Non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries.

Earnings Threshold: The minimum amount an employee must earn before they qualify for certain benefits or rights, such as statutory sick pay.

Employee Engagement: The emotional commitment the employee has to the organisation and its goals, often resulting in improved performance.

Employee Handbook: A manual or document that provides information about the company’s history, mission, values, policies, procedures, and benefits in a written format.

Employee Lifecycle: The different stages an employee goes through during their time at an organisation, from hiring to retirement or exit.

Employee Relations: The management and maintenance of relationships between an employer and its employees.

Employee Retention: The ability of an organisation to retain its employees.

Employee Satisfaction: The level of contentment employees feel about their work, which can affect performance and overall productivity.

Employee Self-Service: A system that allows employees to handle many job-related tasks, such as applications for reimbursement, updating personal information, and accessing company information, that would otherwise have to be completed by management or administrative staff.

Employee Turnover: The rate at which employees leave a workforce and are replaced.

Employee Value Proposition (EVP): A set of associations and offerings provided by an organisation in return for the skills, capabilities, and experiences an employee brings to the organisation.

Employer Branding: The process of promoting a company, or an organisation, as the employer of choice to a desired target group.

Employer of Choice: A company or organisation that is attractive to potential employees due to the quality of the working environment and the benefits it offers.

Employment Equity: The employment practices that ensure non-discrimination and promote equality in the workplace.

Employment Law: A broad area of law that deals with the rights and duties between employers and workers.

Employment Tribunal: A legal body in the UK which resolves disputes between employers and employees over employment rights.

Empowerment: Providing employees with the resources, authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and make decisions to solve problems and improve service and performance.

End of Year Review: A formal assessment conducted at the end of the year to evaluate an employee’s performance, achievements, and areas for development.

Engagement: The emotional commitment the employee has to the organisation and its goals.

Equal Opportunities: The principle of treating all people the same, regardless of their race, sex, sexual orientation, etc., especially in employment.

Equal Pay: The concept of labour rights that individuals in the same workplace be given equal pay.

Equity Theory: A theory of motivation that focuses on the idea that fairness is a key component in the workplace.

ERG (Employee Resource Group): Employee-led groups that focus on shared interests or characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, religious affiliation, lifestyle, or career interests.

Ethical Leadership: The demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication.

Exit Interview: An interview with an employee who is leaving a company, used to gain feedback and understand the reasons for their departure.

Exit Strategy: A planned approach to exiting a situation, which is usually a business operation, position, or agreement.

Expatriate: An employee who is temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country, often sent by their employer to work at a foreign branch.

Experiential Learning: The process of learning through experience and is more specifically defined as learning through reflection on doing.

Flexible Benefits: An employee benefits plan that allows employees to select from a pool of choices, some or all of which may be tax-advantaged.

Flexible Working: A working arrangement that allows employees to vary their working hours, location, or pattern of work to suit their personal needs.

Freelancer: An individual who works as a self-employed person, rather than for a single employer, often engaged in particular assignments or projects.

Forced Distribution: A performance management system in which a predetermined percentage of employees must

Full-Time Equivalent (FTE): A unit that indicates the workload of an employed person in a way that makes workloads or class loads comparable across various contexts.

Furlough: A temporary leave of employees due to special needs of a company, which may be due to economic conditions at a specific employer or in the economy as a whole.

Garden Leave: A period during which an employee is paid and remains employed but is instructed to stay away from work, typically used to protect sensitive company information when transitioning out of a role.

GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation): A regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy in the European Union and the European Economic Area, which also addresses the transfer of personal data outside the EU and EEA areas.

Gender Pay Gap: The average difference in pay between men and women within a workforce, expressed as a percentage of men’s earnings.

Gig Economy: A labour market characterised by the prevalence of short-term contracts or freelance work, as opposed to permanent jobs.

Glass Ceiling: An unofficially acknowledged barrier to advancement in a profession, especially affecting women and members of minorities.

Golden Handshake: A large payment given to a person when they leave a company or retire.

Golden Parachute: A substantial benefits package given to top executives if the company is taken over by another firm, and the executives are terminated as a result of the merger or takeover.

Grade: In the context of HR, it refers to the categorisation of a particular job based on its level of responsibility and remuneration.

Grievance Procedure: A formal process by which an employee can raise a concern, problem, or complaint regarding the workplace.

Gross Misconduct: A serious act or behaviour by an employee that justifies immediate dismissal without notice.

Headcount: The total number of people employed by an organisation at a particular time.

Headhunter: A recruiter who seeks out candidates, often for senior positions.

Health and Safety: Regulations and procedures intended to prevent accident or injury in workplaces or public environments.

Hiring Freeze: A temporary halt in the recruitment process of a company, often due to financial constraints or organisational restructuring.

Holiday Pay: Payment for days when the employee is not required to work because they are part of their entitled holiday allowance.

HR (Human Resources): The division of a business that is charged with finding, screening, recruiting, and training job applicants, as well as administering employee-benefit programs.

HRIS (Human Resource Information System): A system used by HR departments to track and manage employee data.

Inclusion: The practice or policy of providing equal access to opportunities and resources for people who might otherwise be excluded, such as those having physical or mental disabilities and members of other minority groups.

Induction: The process of introducing new employees to a company, including its culture, policies, and the specific duties and responsibilities of their job.

Industrial Action: Measures taken by the workforce or trade union to put pressure on management, typically involving a strike or work-to-rule.

In-Service Training: Training that is provided by an employer during the course of employment to improve the skills and knowledge of employees.

Interim: An employee or role that is intended to cover a position temporarily.

Intern: A student or trainee who works, sometimes without pay, in order to gain work experience or satisfy requirements for a qualification.

IR35: Tax legislation designed to tax ‘disguised employment’ at a rate similar to employment.

Job Description: A formal account of an employee’s responsibilities and the specific duties they are expected to perform in their role.

Job Evaluation: The process of analysing and assessing various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organisation.

Job Share: An employment arrangement where typically two people are retained on a part-time or reduced-time basis to perform a job normally fulfilled by one person working full-time.

Key Performance Indicator (KPI): A set of quantifiable measures that a company uses to gauge or compare performance in terms of meeting their strategic and operational goals.

Knowledge Transfer: The process by which experienced employees share or distribute their knowledge, skills, and behaviours to the employees replacing them.

Layoff: A temporary suspension or permanent termination of employment of an employee or, more commonly, a group of employees for business reasons, such as personnel management or downsizing an organisation.

Learning and Development: A function within HR that focuses on the improvement of skills and knowledge in employees through various forms of training and education.

Leave of Absence: A period of time that one must be away from one’s primary job, while maintaining the status of employee.

Living Wage: A wage that is high enough to maintain a normal standard of living.

Long Service Award: An award given to employees in recognition of a significant period of service to the company.

Maternity Leave: A period of absence from work granted to a mother before and after the birth of her child.

Mentor: An experienced and trusted adviser who provides guidance and support to a less experienced colleague, often in a professional setting.

Merit Increase: An increase in salary given to an employee based on their performance.

Minimum Wage: The lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.

Misconduct: Improper or unacceptable behaviour or wrongdoing, especially by an employee or professional person.

Mobile Working: Working away from a fixed office location and being able to work on the go.

National Insurance: Mandatory payments made by employees and employers in the UK, used to fund various state benefits.

NEET (Not in Education, Employment, or Training): A young person who is not in education, employment, or training.

Net Pay: The amount of an employee’s wages after deductions, such as taxes and retirement contributions, have been subtracted.

Notice Period: The length of time that an employee must work after resigning or being dismissed.

Occupational Health: The field of healthcare that is concerned with the health of employees in the workplace.

Offboarding: The process of transitioning an employee out of a company when they leave.

Onboarding: The process of integrating a new employee into the organisation and its culture.

Overtime: Time worked beyond the standard hours set by the company’s policy.

Part-Time: Working less than the full-time hours, typically by working fewer days per week.

Paternity Leave: A period of time that a father is allowed to be away from his work after the birth of his child.

Pay Grade: A step within a compensation system that defines the amount of pay an employee will receive.

Payroll: The total amount of wages paid by a company to its employees and other workers.

PDP (Personal Development Plan): A document created by an individual to detail their development goals and the actions needed to achieve them, often in a professional context.

Performance Improvement Plan: A tool used by employers to give struggling employees the opportunity to succeed while still holding them accountable for past performance.

Performance Management: The process by which managers and employees work together to plan, monitor, and review an employee’s work objectives and overall contribution to the organisation.

Perk: An extra benefit or bonus, often non-monetary, that is given to employees in addition to their regular salary or wages.

Personal Leave: Time taken off from work for personal reasons, which can include family needs, personal emergencies, or other personal matters.

Phased Retirement: A retirement plan that allows employees to reduce their working hours over a period of time before completely retiring.

Payment in Lieu of Notice (PILON): A financial compensation paid by an employer to an employee instead of having them work their notice period upon termination of employment.

Pipelining: The process of creating a pool of candidates who are qualified for future job openings.

Placement: The assignment of a person to a job or position.

Position: A particular post within an organisation, typically with specific duties and responsibilities.

Pre-employment Screening: The process of verifying the qualifications of a job applicant before they are hired.

Probation: A trial period during which an employee’s suitability for a job is evaluated by their employer.

Pro Rata: A method of calculating salaries and benefits based on the proportion of hours worked, ensuring part-time or temporary employees receive fair compensation relative to full-time equivalents

Psychometric Testing: A standard and scientific method used to measure individuals’ mental capabilities and behavioural style, often used in the recruitment process.

Public Holiday: A holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.

Quiet Quitting: The act of an employee disengaging from their work and doing the minimum required without formally resigning.

Redeployment: The process of moving an employee to a different role or department within the organisation.

Redundancy: The situation in which an employer reduces their workforce because a job or jobs are no longer needed.

Referral Programme: A system where current employees are rewarded for referring suitable candidates for job openings within the organisation.

Remote Working: Working from a location other than the employer’s workplace, often from home or a location of the employee’s choice.

Resignation: The act of giving notice of your intention to leave your job and terminate your employment contract.

Restructuring: The act of reorganising the legal, ownership, operational, or other structures of a company for the purpose of making it more profitable or better organised for its present needs.

Retention: The ability of a company to retain its employees and reduce turnover.

Retirement: The action or fact of leaving one’s job and ceasing to work, typically upon reaching a certain age.

Return to Work: The process of reintegration or returning to work after an absence, such as after maternity leave, sickness, or a career break.

Right to Work: The legal confirmation that a person is entitled to work in a particular country.

Role: The function assumed or part played by a person in a particular situation, especially in their job.

Sabbatical: A period of leave granted to an employee for study or travel, traditionally every seventh year, for a duration that can vary, often not paid.

Safe Working Conditions: Workplace environments that do not pose a risk of serious harm to employees.

Salary Band: A range of pay levels for employees holding similar job titles or positions, reflecting different levels of skills or experience.

Salary Sacrifice: An arrangement where an employee gives up part of their salary in return for some form of non-cash benefit.

Secondment: The temporary transfer of an employee to another job or post within the same or another organisation.

Self-Employed: A person who works for themselves rather than for an employer, paying their own tax and National Insurance.

Severance Pay: Money paid to an employee when they leave a company, often based on the length of employment.

Shift Work: A work schedule that is not the traditional 9-to-5, often involving evening or overnight hours.

Short-Term Contract: An employment contract that lasts for a limited period of time.

Sickness Absence: Time off taken by an employee due to illness.

Skills Gap: The difference between the skills required for a job and the skills possessed by the applicant or employee.

SMART Goals: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound objectives set to guide performance and development.

Social Recruiting: The use of social media networks and websites to find, attract, and hire talent.

Staff: The group of people who work for an organisation.

Stakeholder: Any person, group, or organisation that has an interest in the performance and activities of a company.

Statutory Sick Pay: The minimum amount an employer is legally required to pay an employee, such as statutory sick pay or maternity pay.

Stay Interview: A meeting with an employee to discuss their reasons for staying with the organisation and any potential issues that might cause them to leave.

STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics): An educational and occupational classification covering areas of study and work in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.

Stipend: A fixed, regular sum paid as a salary or allowance, often to an intern or apprentice.

Succession Planning: The process of identifying and developing new leaders who can replace old leaders when they leave, retire, or die.

Talent Acquisition: The process of finding and acquiring skilled human labour for organisational needs and to meet any labour requirement.

Talent Management: The ongoing process of developing and retaining an organisation’s workforce.

Talent Pool: A database of candidates who are qualified to assume specific roles within a company when they become available.

Tax Code: A tax code is a series of numbers and letters used by employers or pension providers to determine the amount of Income Tax to deduct from an individual’s earnings or pension.

Team Building: Activities and exercises designed to improve interpersonal relations and teamwork within a group.

Temporary Work: Employment that is expected to last for a limited period of time, often used to cover short-term needs of the employing organisation.

Termination: The act of ending the employment of an employee or a group of employees.

Time off in Lieu (TOIL): Time off in compensation for extra hours worked, also known as ‘comp time’.

Time Management: The ability to use one’s time effectively or productively, especially at work.

Timesheet: A record used to track the number of hours worked by an employee.

TUPE (Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment)): UK law that protects employees’ terms and conditions of employment when a business is transferred from one owner to another.

Turnover: The rate at which employees leave a workforce and are replaced, often expressed as a percentage of the total workforce.

Underemployment: A situation where individuals are working in a job that is insufficient in some important way for them, such as not utilising their skills, or working fewer hours than they would prefer.

Unfair Dismissal: A statutory right in the UK that allows employees to take action against their employer if they believe their dismissal was not justified.

Union: An organised association of workers formed to protect and further their rights and interests.

Upskilling: The process of learning new or improving existing skills, often for career development purposes.

Variable Pay: Compensation that is not fixed and may vary according to performance or results achieved.

Voluntary Redundancy: A situation where an employee agrees to leave their job in exchange for financial compensation, often as part of a cost-cutting strategy.

Wage: The fixed regular payment, typically paid on a daily or weekly basis, made by an employer to an employee, especially a manual or unskilled worker.

Wellbeing: The state of being comfortable, healthy, or happy in the workplace.

Whistle-blower: An employee who exposes any kind of information or activity within an organisation that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct.

White-Collar: Pertaining to the work done or those who work in an office or other professional environment.

Without Prejudice Conversation: A legally protected discussion between parties in a dispute, where statements made cannot be used as evidence in court, allowing for candid negotiation and resolution attempts

Work-Life Balance: The equilibrium between an individual’s work life and personal life.

Work Permit: An official document giving a foreigner permission to take a job in a country.

Work Shadowing: A work experience where a person learns about a job by walking through the work day as a shadow to a competent worker.

Workforce Planning: The process of analysing the current workforce, determining future workforce needs, and identifying the gap between the present and the future in order to implement solutions.

Working Conditions: The environment in which an individual or staff works, including but not limited to things like safety, amenities, physical demands, and legal rights.

Working Time Regulations: Regulations that govern how long employees in the UK can work, including limits on the average working week, statutory entitlement to paid leave, and the regulation of night work.

Workplace Bullying: Repeated, unreasonable actions of individuals or a group directed towards an employee or a group of employees which create a risk to health and safety.

Workplace Discrimination: Unfair or unequal treatment of an employee or group of employees based on personal characteristics such as age, gender, race, religion, or disability.

Workplace Harassment: Unwanted conduct affecting the dignity of men and women in the workplace, which may be related to age, sex, race, disability, religion, nationality, or any personal characteristic of the individual.

Zero Hours Contract: A contract between an employer and a worker where the employer is not obliged to provide any minimum working hours, and the worker is not obliged to accept any work offered, together with the implications for zero hour contract holiday pay.

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